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108                                    FIORA   INDICA.
upon the fact that not only are a large proportion of annual
and herbaceous species of each common to Western India
and Europe,, but of shrubs and trees also.
Although the progress we have hitherto been able to make in
critically examining our own Indian collections is very limited,
•we have already established the identity of so many Himalayan
plants with European ones, as to oblige us to look to a com-
mon origin for the species found in both these regions, and
to seek for causes no longer in operation to account for their
distribution over so extended an area. The mountain mass of
Asia, as is well known, sinks to the westward of Afghanistan,
rising again only in isolated peaks; a-nd hence the Himalaya
is rather ideally than really connected with the mountains
south of the Caspian, and so with the Caucasian'Alps on one
hand, and those of Asia Minor on the other; nevertheless we
find a multitude of mountain plants, and indeed many of the
most conspicuous ones of Europe, ranging from the coasts of
the Levant and the Ulack Sea to the Himalaya. Of these,
again, some are confined within these limits, as Cory hat (70-
lurna (C. lacera, Wall.); others spread no further east than
the North-western Himalaya, but continue westward to the
south of Spain, as Qua-rcus Hew, U/mus cawpesMti, CaltLt
australis and orientalis; and others, again, advance eastward,
spreading over the whole Himalaya, as the Walnut, Ivy,
Juniper, and Yew, some of which extend into the Khosia;
and two, Juniper and Yew, spread yet further acrotw China,
Mexico, and throughout North America. These Burojwan
forms are almost confined to the temperate regions of India,
and with them we also find abundantly the herbs and shrubs
of Northern Europe, inhabiting a loftier level in the Himalaya,
where they blend with the Siberian types. Wo < annot con-
ceive anything more valuable or Huggewtb'e to the student of
geographical distribution thau au accurate list of these Euro-
pean plants, which may be grouped under three heads:*--L
Such us are common to most parts of Europe, Northern Asia,
and North America, and the Himalaya, auch its the Yew,